I have discussed the problem of evil in the past, and what I feel is the Church’s unique position on how the atonement itself acts as a theodicy, God responding with everything he can to our suffering. I still stand by the general premise of that post, that the universe is governed by eternal laws independent of God  and that man has free agency and thus God is not accountable for him.  I also still hold that through the Atonement of Christ, God is doing all he can to alleviate our suffering.
I’d like to speculate a little bit more about why God isn’t doing more to alleviate suffering. Here is where some theories associated with evolution come in. 
The Human brain is actually three brains. Our central brain, the basal ganglia or reptile brain is associated traditionally with base instinct and response. Wrapped around this is the hippocamal complex, or limbic system, which is commonly associated with procreation and survival characteristics. Sometimes this is compared with a dog’s brain. Finally, wrapped around this is the neocortex, the outer layer which in humans has been associated with our ability to interpret symbols, forecast, imagine, improvise, and communicate. From the perspective of evolutionary theory, it seems that natural selection required the agonizing long suffering of the ice age to push our ancestors out of their comfortable environment where the did not need the capabilities of the neocortex to survive into the Savannahs where they had to either become phyisically or mentally stronger to survive.
So over millions of years, our ancestors became more intelligent, more societal, and more able to have complex emotions and understandings, all because of what they suffered. We believe God has all these features. We believe ultimately we are meant to progress and become like God. Is it thus possible that God allows our suffering so that we, as a people, may progress, because he knows we would not be able to otherwise?
Your thoughts are appreciated.
 D&C 93:33
 Abraham 3:18
 I owe much of my understanding here to John Medina’s Brain Rules.
 While I got this from Brain Rules, you can read more here.